Endorsements

Washington Conservation Voters

Washington Conservation Voters

Washington Conservation Voters (WCV) is the political voice for the environment. WCV ensures Washington’s decision makers keep our environment protected, healthy, and vibrant. Over the last 35 years, we have elected environmental champions, held our elected leaders to the highest standard, and built statewide momentum for environmental campaigns through innovative voter outreach efforts and community organizing. Through our work, WCV is committed to making sure all people in Washington state have a healthy environment and a strong, sustainable economy.

Statewide Ballot Measures

Referendum #90

  • VOTE APPROVED
    Vote YES on Referendum 90
  • Young people deserve accurate information to help them make good decisions, to protect themselves, and to protect their futures. But today, too many students don’t receive high-quality, inclusive, medically accurate education about sex and healthy relationships, putting them at risk of sexual assault, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections. In particular, students of color are more likely to receive incomplete or incorrect sex education. 

    Voting to approve Referendum 90 will uphold the new Washington law (ESSB 5395) that requires all public schools to offer age-appropriate, inclusive, comprehensive sex education. Washington’s Legislature passed the law to expand access to sex education to all students. Unfortunately, the state Republican Party alongside anti-LGBTQ+ and anti-choice groups have put sex education up for another vote by placing Referendum 90 on the ballot. 

    Referendum 90 has been endorsed by a diverse group of more than 100 medical, education, and sexual assault prevention groups. Sex education serves as both prevention and intervention for sexual assault and rape. Children who are being sexually abused often don’t understand what is happening until someone provides them the tools and language to communicate about it with trusted adults.  

    This referendum means teaching students in grades K-3 self-awareness, self-control, and interpersonal skills. Parents retain ultimate control under Referendum 90 because the law gives parents at least one-month advance notice to review all materials, and parents may opt their children out of sex education classes. 

    Parents, teachers, and pediatricians know that in states with quality sex education, teens are talking about consent, waiting longer to have sex, avoiding unintended pregnancies, and keeping themselves safe. Vote to "Approve" Referendum 90.

    Referendum 90

    Young people deserve accurate information to help them make good decisions, to protect themselves, and to protect their futures. But today, too many students don’t receive high-quality, inclusive, medically accurate education about sex and healthy relationships, putting them at risk of sexual assault, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections. In particular, students of color are more likely to receive incomplete or incorrect sex education. 

Statewide

Governor

  • Democrat
  • Governor Jay Inslee has been a strong, principled leader on the important challenges facing Washington. Before he was elected as governor in 2012, Inslee represented both sides of the Cascades in Congress, opposed the Iraq war, and worked to increase accountability and oversight for Wall Street banks.

    Inslee has established himself as a national leader on fighting climate change. He has invested more than $170 million into clean energy and energy efficiency projects, implemented the Clean Air Rule, and pushed for legislation that reduces pollution in Washington. In his 2020 bid for the presidency, Inslee brought a focus on climate to the race. Outside of his work on climate, Inslee has signed into law Washington's public option for health care, paid family leave, and the Equal Pay Opportunity Act.

    Recently, Inslee has been a national leader in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. His proactive, decisive, science-driven efforts have saved countless Washingtonians from getting sick. Unfortunately, we've seen the flip side recently where states with governors who were slow or failed to act have seen dramatic increases in cases.

    Inslee's opponent is Republican Loren Culp, the sole police officer of the town of Republic and one of the farthest right of Inslee's main primary challengers. Culp came to national fame for refusing to enforce the voter-approved Initiative 1639, which placed restrictions on semi-automatic firearm sales. Much of Culp's primary and early general election campaign has centered on opposing public health measures like wearing masks. 

    Culp's policy track record is disturbing, especially related to the environment. He recently questioned whether the wildfires that have ravaged the region are climate-related. He's compared gun rights to the Holocaust and likened the governor's stay-home policies to the horrors of Japanese internment during WWII. He faces a lawsuit for failing to investigate a child sex abuse case and for intimidating the victim in a case that was swiftly prosecuted after the county stepped in and took over. 

    As the coronavirus crisis continues and the gap in the state budget persists, we need real, experienced leadership at the helm of the state. Inslee is the clear choice for governor.

    Jay Inslee

    Governor Jay Inslee has been a strong, principled leader on the important challenges facing Washington.

Lt. Governor

  • Democrat
  • Rep. Denny Heck is retiring from Congress and running for Lt. Governor. Heck has had a long, effective career in both the private and public sectors, most notably as a five-term state representative, House majority leader, chief of staff to former Gov. Booth Gardner, and TVW co-founder.

    In Congress, Heck has fought to make college more affordable, lower health care costs, ensure veterans get the benefits they deserve, and create middle-class jobs. He supports immigration policies that create a path to citizenship and worked to help prevent health care premium increases due to Trump's policies. Heck was elected to represent the 10th Congressional District after it was created in 2012 and decided to retire after the impeachment hearings in December 2019.

    His top priorities as Lt. Governor would be reforming our regressive tax system, investing in infrastructure like safe roads and bridges to bolster our economy, and helping people "skill up." In his Fuse interview, he expressed support for police reform and wants to expand on the Electeds For Justice pledge to eliminate qualified immunity for police officers. In addition, Heck said he wants to use the office and his extensive experience to lobby moderate senators on progressive issues.

    Denny Heck

    Rep. Denny Heck is retiring from Congress and running for Lt. Governor. Heck has had a long, effective career in both the private and public sectors, most notably as a five-term state representative, House majority leader, chief of staff to former Gov. Booth Gardner, and TVW co-founder.

Secretary of State

  • Former Port Commissioner and progressive state Rep. Gael Tarleton is now running for Secretary of State to serve as the state's chief elections officer, among other roles. First elected to the Legislature in 2012, Tarleton has been a strong advocate for environmental causes such as Governor Jay Inslee's initiative to reduce carbon pollution. She sponsored bills during her first term in the House to strengthen the maritime industry, improve access to health care, and ensure gender pay equity.

    Tarleton is running for Secretary of State to expand access to voting in Washington while safeguarding our elections against "foreign and domestic" attacks. She wants to improve digital security and increase funding for county auditors to protect local elections from hacking attempts in the wake of the 2016 election. She would also expand audits of the state and local systems to identify any weaknesses that could be exploited.

    Tarleton is challenging incumbent Republican Secretary of State Kim Wyman, who has faced a bumpy road during her time in office. Last year, Wyman's office released a new $9.5 million voter registration database that was riddled with errors and led to a backlog of tens of thousands of registrations. King County elections director Julie Wise described the release as "irresponsible" and "not even functioning." In addition, Wyman was slow to support the Washington Voting Rights Act, same-day voter registration, and postage-paid ballots.

    We need a progressive leader in the Secretary of State's office who is fully committed to protecting our elections and removing every barrier to participation in our democracy. Tarleton is the clear progressive choice in this race.

    Gael Tarleton

    Former Port Commissioner and progressive state Rep. Gael Tarleton is now running for Secretary of State to serve as the state's chief elections officer, among other roles.

State Treasurer

Attorney General

Commissioner of Public Lands

Superintendent of Public Instruction

  • Non-Partisan
  • Chris Reykdal is running for re-election to the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction to continue his leadership of our state's public schools through this challenging time. Previously, Reykdal spent 14 years serving on local school boards and in leadership positions at community and technical colleges, as well as serving 6 years in the Legislature. In the state House, Reykdal had a strong progressive voting record and was a consistent champion for public schools.

    In his first term as superintendent, Reykdal has pushed the Legislature to fully fund K-12 education, increase teacher pay, and close the opportunity gap for students of color. More recently, Reykdal has worked closely with Gov. Inslee to help Washington schools navigate the pandemic. He made the tough decision early to close schools for the year in order to keep kids and families safe and to slow the spread of COVID-19. If re-elected, Reykdal will continue to advocate for these priorities and work with schools across the state as they make the transition back to in-person education.

    Reykdal is facing former Republican legislative candidate Maia Espinoza. Espinoza is a school music teacher and a former legislative liaison to the Governor’s Commission on Hispanic Affairs. She was motivated to run by her opposition to comprehensive sexual health education and gained attention by publishing a false and inflammatory voters' pamphlet statement attacking Reykdal. In addition, an Associated Press investigation found that Espinoza provided false or misleading descriptions of her own education and the organization she leads. As of mid-September, Espinoza is also dangerously pushing for classrooms to re-open fully for in-person learning, despite mass outbreaks at schools and universities across the country.

    Reykdal is the clear choice for Superintendent of Public Instruction.

    Chris Reykdal

    Chris Reykdal is running for re-election to the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction to continue his leadership of our state's public schools through this challenging time.

State Legislature

1st Legislative District

3rd Legislative District

5th Legislative District

  • Democrat
  • Rep. Bill Ramos is running for re-election for the 5th Legislative District, House Position 1. Prior to serving in the Legislature, Ramos was an Issaquah City Council member as well as a member of the Human Services Commission and the Planning Policy Commission. In his time as a local elected official, Ramos earned a reputation as an environmentalist by fighting for sustainable development and growth policies, as well as by supporting expanded transit options. He built on that reputation in his first term in Olympia by sponsoring a slate of environmental bills this legislative session, including House bills on carbon sequestration and expanding equitable community renewable energy projects. Ramos states that his priorities if re-elected would include transportation improvements to replace aging infrastructure and passing more environmental protections. Facing budget shortfalls in next year's legislative session, Ramos says he will take a people-first approach by expanding health care coverage and promoting funds for worker protections and small businesses.

    Running against Ramos is Republican Ken Moninski. Moninski, who runs two aviation-related businesses, is prioritizing reopening the economy, reducing regulations on businesses, opening schools, and otherwise making a "return to normal" in Washington. He states that he will not seek to raise new revenue despite the historic budget shortfall of $6 billion caused by the pandemic.

    The 5th District needs a representative who can both handle the threat of the pandemic seriously as well as build policies for the future beyond it. Ramos is by far the best choice in this race.

    Bill Ramos

    Rep. Bill Ramos is running for re-election for the 5th Legislative District, House Position 1. Prior to serving in the Legislature, Ramos was an Issaquah City Council member as well as a member of the Human Services Commission and the Planning Policy Commission.

10th Legislative District

11th Legislative District

16th Legislative District

  • Evergreen Future
  • Democrat Danielle Garbe Reser is running for the state Senate seat in the 16th Legislative District, which is open after Sen. Maureen Walsh's retirement. Garbe Reser has served in several leadership roles in the community, including on Whitman’s Presidential Advisory Board and the Walla Walla YWCA’s Nominating Committee and Community Council’s Governance Committee. She believes in bipartisan solutions and has worked for both Democratic and Republican administrations through her 14-year career as a diplomat with the U.S. Department of State.

    Garbe Reser calls her platform, which focuses on community recovery and resiliency, both "fiscally responsible" and "community-driven." She wants to help get people back to work by modernizing the electric grid and supports additional investments in early learning, affordable housing, and quality healthcare. In Olympia, Garbe Reser wants to bring her district's concerns to the forefront and advocate for policy that works for all Washingtonians. To do this, she vows to prioritize people above partisan politics.

    Garbe Reser is running against Republican Perry Dozier, who formerly served as the Walla Walla County Commissioner among other local elected positions. He has taken advantage of the coronavirus crisis as a way to criticize the governor and advance a conservative agenda. Dozier previously faced controversy for his efforts to pump water from agricultural zones to bottle and sell elsewhere.

    Garbe Reser is the best choice for state Senate from the 16th Legislative District.

    Danielle Garbe Reser

    Democrat Danielle Garbe Reser is running for the state Senate seat in the 16th Legislative District, which is open after Sen. Maureen Walsh's retirement.

  • Evergreen Future
  • Frances Chvatal is running for House Position 1 in the 16th Legislative District. Chvatal has spent her career working in health care, including more than 35 years as a nurse, and is campaigning to improve our health care system. As a lifelong resident of Eastern Washington with strong community experience, Chvatal will work hard for the residents of the 16th District.

    Chvatal wants to prioritize her constituents' health and focus on addressing the state's budget crisis without deep cuts. In light of the pandemic, she is pledging to ensure high-quality health care for all, as well as policies that improve mental health care access. Chvatal supports wraparound services for vulnerable residents, a living wage and fair hiring practices, and linking agriculture with a healthy environment.

    Also in this race is Republican and Washington Farm Bureau director Mark Klicker. Klicker is running against the "liberal agenda" in Olympia. He states that he would stand against climate-saving measures like the clean fuel standard and would resist policies that attempt to rebalance the state's upside-down tax code. On the topic of re-opening, Klicker insisted that "we need to open up in a hurry."

    During this ongoing public health crisis, the 16th District deserves a representative who will prioritize health and safety for all and take an informed approach to re-opening the state. Chvatal is the better choice in this race.

    Frances Chvatal

    Frances Chvatal is running for House Position 1 in the 16th Legislative District. Chvatal has spent her career working in health care, including more than 35 years as a nurse, and is campaigning to improve our health care system.

  • Endorsed By: Teamsters Joint Council 28 , Washington Conservation Voters , Housing Action Fund , Young Democrats of Washington, Washington Education Association Southeast
  • Democrat Carly Coburn is challenging Republican incumbent Skyler Rude for 16th Legislative District, House Position 2. Coburn is a lifelong Washingtonian who has served in several leadership positions, including as treasurer of the Tri-Cities Young Democrats, first vice-chair of the Franklin County Democrats, and as the first chair of the WSDCC Disability Issues Caucus.

    Coburn's top priorities are increasing health care affordability and accessibility in rural communities, as well as increasing affordable housing. Her work as a disability advocate positions her well to advocate for integrated housing for adults with disabilities as well as more low-income housing. Coburn is a strong advocate for affordable health care and stated recently that "health care shouldn’t be allowed to be used as a bargaining chip against employees."

    Coburn's opponent, incumbent Rep. Skyler Rude, has held the seat since last year and has already been an obstacle to a number of progressive bills. Like many of his Republican colleagues, Rude is more concerned with re-opening the economy than protecting the health of his constituents. One of his top priorities is "protecting business," which includes a host of anti-worker practices like training wages, subminimum wages, and reduced compensation for workers injured on the job.

    Coburn is a true progressive and staunch advocate for marginalized residents of the 16th District. She is the best choice in this race.

    Carly Coburn

    Democrat Carly Coburn is challenging Republican incumbent Skyler Rude for 16th Legislative District, House Position 2.

  • Endorsed By: Washington Conservation Voters , Benton, Walla Walla, and Franklin County Democrats, National Women's Political Caucus of Washington

17th Legislative District

22nd Legislative District

  • Rep. Laurie Dolan is running for re-election for the 22nd Legislative District, Position 1. As an educator with more than 30 years of classroom and area director experience with Spokane Public Schools, Dolan has been an effective vice-chair of the Education and State Government Committees where she fought for workers' rights and fully funded education.

    Dolan is a leader in sponsoring progressive bills in the House. Some of her recent legislative highlights include funding for mental health experts in schools and transparent salary history laws that benefit women and people of color. In January, Dolan sponsored a bill that prohibited race-based hairstyle discrimination. After hearing directly from constituents, Dolan sponsored a bill in February that protected survivors' privacy when reporting sexual assault in an effort to create safer avenues for them to tell their stories. If re-elected, Dolan states that she will continue her work on safe schools, protections for workers, and expanding affordable healthcare, which is as important as ever with the threat of COVID-19.

    Dolan is running against Republican J.D. Ingram. Ingram has had little campaign presence. In an interview with his fellow candidates this July, Ingram took a number of conservative stances, claiming at one point that he does not "favor any tax increases of any kind, for any reason." Ingram responded to questions about police accountability by insisting that to avoid sowing division, we should avoid recognizing race. Ingram also rejected speaking much on the subject of climate change, insisting the issue has been "irretrievably politicized."

    Given Dolan's commitment to progressive issues and marginalized communities, she remains an important voice for the 22nd Legislative District. Dolan has received the majority of support from progressive organizations and is the best choice in this race.

    Laurie Dolan

    Rep. Laurie Dolan is running for re-election for the 22nd Legislative District, Position 1.

23rd Legislative District

24th Legislative District

  • Rep. Mike Chapman is a moderate Democrat running for re-election to the 24th Legislative District, House Position 1. First elected in 2016, Chapman has fought for economic policies that create jobs in rural communities and protect the environment. This year, he was a co-sponsor of a major environmental bill to reduce state greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2050.

    Chapman is focused on producing solutions for families concerned about the quality of K-12 education and supporting economic opportunity in Washington. When it comes to economic recovery, Chapman wants to make sure that everyone pays their share. Unfortunately, despite giving outspoken support for law enforcement, Chapman has yet to propose any measure to increase police accountability.

    Chapman is running against Republican Sue Forde. Forde previously ran for office and lost in 2003 against Steve Tharinger in the race for a county commissioner position. Her campaign platform focuses on criminal prosecution, Second Amendment rights, and reducing regulations. Forde has publicly minimized the detrimental effects of the pandemic on public health and says she is against Gov. Inslee's mask policy, a key part of the COVID-19 response.

    While COVID-19 continues to threaten the health of Washingtonians and residents suffer through an economic crisis, it is more important than ever to choose a representative that will take our current moment seriously and follow the advice of experts. Chapman is the clear choice in this race.

    Mike Chapman

    Rep. Mike Chapman is a moderate Democrat running for re-election to the 24th Legislative District, House Position 1. First elected in 2016, Chapman has fought for economic policies that create jobs in rural communities and protect the environment.

  • Evergreen Future
  • Democratic Rep. Steve Tharinger is running for re-election to the 24th Legislative District, House Position 2. Since 2010, Tharinger has been a strong progressive leader for the district. He currently co-chairs the Joint Legislative Executive Committee on Aging and Disability and is a member of the Dementia Action Collaborative.

    Tharinger is passionate about providing affordable health care options to all Washingtonians and has been unwavering in his advocacy for innovative policies that protect the environment. If re-elected, his priorities would be investing in ports and parks, strengthening health care, and recovering from the impacts of the pandemic. Rep. Tharinger recently spoke out in favor of protecting a fully funded and functioning postal service so that rural residents in his district can continue to receive medicine, pay bills, and vote by mail with confidence.

    Tharinger is running against retired Army officer Brian Pruiett. Pruiett opposes fixing our upside-down tax code, despite the fact that low- and moderate-income residents pay a far higher tax rate than the wealthy. Pruiett recently made a statement offering unconditional support for law enforcement in all parts of Washington state, vowing that he will "not listen" to Washingtonians protesting for racial justice even within his own district.

    In this time of health and economic uncertainties, the 24th Legislative District needs steady, progressive leadership that protects working people and the vulnerable, not just businesses' bottom lines. Tharinger is by far the best choice in this race.

    Steve Tharinger

    Democratic Rep. Steve Tharinger is running for re-election to the 24th Legislative District, House Position 2. Since 2010, Tharinger has been a strong progressive leader for the district.

25th Legislative District

  • Democrat
  • Evergreen Future
  • Puyallup mayor and local small business owner Julie Door is running for state Senate in the 25th Legislative District. Prior to being elected as mayor this year, Door served on the council for seven years, where she supported the purchase of the Van Lierop farm to create a new park, implemented a Safe Routes to Schools initiative, and worked on securing adequate shelter for people experiencing homelessness in inclement weather. She was the community services chair of the Puyallup Kiwanis Club and is a board member of the South Sound 911 Board, among other community involvement.

    Door became mayor at the beginning of the year, navigating Puyallup through the early stages of the coronavirus pandemic by swiftly declaring a state of emergency so that the city could access additional resources. If elected, she will build on that public health experience to expand health care access including mental health treatment. Door will also push for living-wage jobs in the district and promote more equity and investment in the classroom.

    Door is running against Republican Rep. Chris Gildon. Gildon is one of several Republican legislators who criticized Gov. Inslee's stay-at-home order and supported leaving re-opening decisions up to local governments despite the rising number of COVID-19 cases across the state. This year in the House, Gildon voted against creating a statewide Office of Equity, requiring greenhouse gas emissions to be reduced to zero by 2050, and reducing transportation pollution.

    As a lifetime resident of Puyallup with a keen grasp of the issues in the 25th District, Door will represent her constituents well in the Legislature. Door is the best choice in this race.

    Julie Door

    Puyallup mayor and local small business owner Julie Door is running for state Senate in the 25th Legislative District.

  • Democrat
  • Evergreen Future
  • Puyallup School District teacher Jamie Smith is running for the 25th Legislative District, House Position 1 on a platform of improving life for families and working Washingtonians. Prior to seeking office, Smith spent 17 years as an educator in Puyallup.

    If elected, Smith would prioritize securing more stable funding for public schools and increasing transit options to accommodate the more than 50% of workers who live in Pierce but work outside the county. In addition, she supports increasing investments in small businesses, job training in renewable energy positions, and fixing our state's upside-down tax code. Smith has said she supports expanded health care access to promote public health and to save the state money on overall care costs.

    Smith is running against Republican Rep. Kelly Chambers, a conservative Republican who voted against establishing the Washington State Office of Equity and opposed comprehensive sexual health education for students. Kelly was endorsed by right-wing extremist and domestic terrorist Rep. Matt Shea in her re-election campaign. Chambers is strongly against balancing our state's upside-down tax code, despite the fact that her constituents with lower incomes pay at up to six times the rate of the wealthiest in the state under the current system. Chambers joined several other Republicans in challenging Gov. Inslee's extension of the Stay Home, Stay Healthy order in early May while the virus was still peaking, despite the recommendations of public health officials.

    The people of the 25th Legislative District deserve a representative who cares about their health and economic well-being, not one who puts corporate profits first. Smith is by far the best choice in this race.

    Jamie Smith

    Puyallup School District teacher Jamie Smith is running for the 25th Legislative District, House Position 1 on a platform of improving life for families and working Washingtonians. Prior to seeking office, Smith spent 17 years as an educator in Puyallup.

  • Evergreen Future
  • Firefighter and veteran Brian Duthie is vying for the 25th Legislative District, House Position 2. The seat is currently held by Rep. Chris Gildon, who is moving on to run for state Senate this year. Duthie has significant community experience including his role as a board member of the Washington State Council of Firefighters Burn Foundation.

    Duthie is campaigning to strengthen K-12 education by reducing class sizes, adding more special education resources, and making sure teachers are fairly compensated. He believes that the state will only begin economic recovery when the dangerous spread of COVID-19 is also addressed, and he relies on health experts and medical professionals to inform his approach to public health policy. If elected, Duthie will focus on health care affordability and reducing traffic congestion in Pierce County.

    Duthie's opponent is Puyallup City Councilmember Cyndy Jacobsen. Jacobsen is running on a very conservative platform including support for defunding Planned Parenthood, opposition to marriage equality despite it being the law since 2012, and cutting investments in our transportation system that would reduce traffic and create thousands of jobs. In addition, she wants the state to re-open before public health experts say it is safe to do so and she has amplified dangerous conspiracy theories about the coronavirus. 

    Washingtonians need leaders who will listen to health care professionals and science when creating pandemic policy. Duthie is the best choice in this race and deserves your vote.

    Brian Duthie

    Firefighter and veteran Brian Duthie is vying for the 25th Legislative District, House Position 2. The seat is currently held by Rep. Chris Gildon, who is moving on to run for state Senate this year.

27th Legislative District

28th Legislative District

  • Evergreen Future
  • T'wina Nobles is challenging Republican Sen. Steve O'Ban for the 28th Legislative District Senate seat. Nobles is the president and CEO of the Tacoma Urban League, an organization that helps underserved communities navigate difficult economic times. She has worked in education for 15 years as an instructor, the University Place School Board Director, and a PTA leader.

    If elected, Nobles wants to increase pay for teachers, reduce class sizes, and work to make schools more inclusive and equitable. She knows more needs to be done to ensure families in the 28th are healthy and safe, which she believes includes gun violence prevention, addiction recovery and mental health resources, and better health care access. Nobles is also running to fix our upside-down tax code and fight for better wages and affordable housing for working people.

    Incumbent Sen. O'Ban is a far-right conservative who has previously sued the state to prevent Washingtonians from having access to birth control at some pharmacies. Likewise, he has fought against equality for the LGBTQ+ community, including leading the opposition to marriage equality. At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, O'Ban pushed to re-open the economy long before public health experts said it was safe to do so. This year, he opposed establishing the Washington State Office of Equity and voted against prohibiting discrimination based on citizenship or immigration status.

    Nobles is the clear progressive choice and would make a great state senator. In this tight race to unseat a conservative, Nobles deserves your vote.

    T'wina Nobles

    T'wina Nobles is challenging Republican Sen. Steve O'Ban for the 28th Legislative District Senate seat. Nobles is the president and CEO of the Tacoma Urban League, an organization that helps underserved communities navigate difficult economic times.