Depending on where you live, you may have the below city races on your ballot.

  • Karen Bass

    Elect Karen Bass as mayor to push Los Angeles in the right direction. 

     

    The Position

    Los Angeles uses a mayor–city council government structure, in which the mayor is elected at large and acts as chair of the 15-member city council and as the city’s chief executive

    Karen Bass

    Elect Karen Bass as mayor to push Los Angeles in the right direction. 

     

    The Position

    Los Angeles uses a mayor–city council government structure, in which the mayor is elected at large and acts as chair of the 15-member city council and as the city’s chief executive

    Karen Bass

    Elect Karen Bass as mayor to push Los Angeles in the right direction. 

     

    The Position

    Los Angeles uses a mayor–city council government structure, in which the mayor is elected at large and acts as chair of the 15-member city council and as the city’s chief executive

  • Endorsed By: Courage California

Depending on where you live, you may have one of the below State Senate races on your ballot.

  • Isaac Bryan

    Reelect State Assemblymember Isaac Bryan to keep AD-55 on the right track for progress. 

     

    The Position

    State assemblymembers represent and advocate for the needs of their district constituents at the California State Capitol. They are responsible for creating, debating, and voting on legislation that addresses issues within their district.

    The California State Assembly has 80 districts. Each represents a population of at least 465,000 Californians. Representatives are elected to the Assembly for a two-year term. Every two years, all 80 seats are subject to election. Members elected before 2012 are restricted to three two-year terms (six years) in the Assembly. Those elected in or after 2012 are allowed to serve 12 years total across both the state Senate or the Assembly. This term, Democrats currently hold a two-thirds supermajority of 56 seats in the California State Assembly, while Republicans hold 19 seats. One seat is held by an Independent and four seats are currently vacant. 

     

    The District

    California’s 55th Assembly District includes parts of Los Angeles County. Prior to redistricting, Republicans typically held this district. Of the registered voters in this district, 8% are Republican and 65% are Democrat, and the district’s demographic breakdown is 25% Latino, 11% Asian, and 29% Black. After the 2021 redistricting process, the advantage that Democrats held during the 2020 general election cycle is unchanged. The most recent election results show that AD-55 voted for Joe Biden for president in 2020 by 71 points and Gavin Newsom for governor in 2018 by 73 points.

     

    The Race

    There are two candidates running for this seat, including Democrat Incumbent Representative Isaac Bryan and Republican Keith Cascio. Assm. Bryan’s campaign has raised $475,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, police, or real estate money. Cascio’s campaign has not recorded any fundraising receipts with the Secretary of State. 

     

    The Recommendation

    Assm. Isaac Bryan, a policy analyst and an organizer, lives in Jefferson Park. According to campaign materials, he is running for reelection to continue to use his lived experience and knowledge of coalition-building to bring intersectional change to his constituent communities. Assm. Bryan currently represents AD-54, a seat he won outright in a special primary election held in May 2021. In that race, he received over 50% of the vote against four Democratic opponents.

    Assm. Bryan’s priorities for AD-54 this year have included 24 bills about housing, child welfare, climate change, and criminal justice. Of these, two have been chaptered into law and one has died, and the remaining bills are in committee. Assm. Bryan currently sits on five committees, including Appropriations, Governmental Organization, Human Services, and Public Safety, and serves as the chair of the Elections Committee. He scores a CS of 100 out of 100 on Courage Score, our annual analysis of legislators’ progressive voting records. Based on our Courage Score analysis, Assm. Bryan has supported all progressive bills that made it to a vote this year. He received an Honorable Mention distinction from Courage Score this year for his commitment to progressive leadership. 

    Prior to his election to the State Assembly, Assm. Bryan developed his political acumen as a published academic, earning a master of public policy degree from UCLA. After graduating, he became founding director of the UCLA Black Policy Project, which aims to address racial inequity through policy analysis and advocacy. His work there allowed him to focus on research regarding the resources needed for successful reentry after incarceration, and larger issues with youth-justice policy. Assm. Bryan’s interest in issues of equity is personal. As one of nine adopted children in a family of 15, he encountered significant academic challenges and observed his siblings struggling with houselessness, addiction, and mental health. Assm. Bryan is a longtime supporter of policy that addresses the intersections of these complex social issues. He co-chaired the committee supporting Measure J, which amended the Los Angeles County charter to require that 10% of local revenue be reinvested in the community and in alternatives to incarcerations. The measure was passed by voters in November 2020, and brings meaningful local investment to the county. 

    Assm. Bryan has the endorsement of a strong majority of progressive groups, including California Teachers Association, California League of Conservation Voters, and ACCE Action. He has also received the endorsement of many progressive lawmakers, including Congresswoman Karen Bass, LA Supervisor Holly Mitchell, and LA City Councilmember Nithya Raman. Based on our analysis, Assm. Bryan’s track record and policy positions demonstrate that he will continue to be a progressive champion for the constituents of AD-55 and will govern effectively in the best interest of this diverse district.

    Isaac Bryan

    Reelect State Assemblymember Isaac Bryan to keep AD-55 on the right track for progress. 

     

    The Position

    State assemblymembers represent and advocate for the needs of their district constituents at the California State Capitol. They are responsible for creating, debating, and voting on legislation that addresses issues within their district.

    The California State Assembly has 80 districts. Each represents a population of at least 465,000 Californians. Representatives are elected to the Assembly for a two-year term. Every two years, all 80 seats are subject to election. Members elected before 2012 are restricted to three two-year terms (six years) in the Assembly. Those elected in or after 2012 are allowed to serve 12 years total across both the state Senate or the Assembly. This term, Democrats currently hold a two-thirds supermajority of 56 seats in the California State Assembly, while Republicans hold 19 seats. One seat is held by an Independent and four seats are currently vacant. 

     

    The District

    California’s 55th Assembly District includes parts of Los Angeles County. Prior to redistricting, Republicans typically held this district. Of the registered voters in this district, 8% are Republican and 65% are Democrat, and the district’s demographic breakdown is 25% Latino, 11% Asian, and 29% Black. After the 2021 redistricting process, the advantage that Democrats held during the 2020 general election cycle is unchanged. The most recent election results show that AD-55 voted for Joe Biden for president in 2020 by 71 points and Gavin Newsom for governor in 2018 by 73 points.

     

    The Race

    There are two candidates running for this seat, including Democrat Incumbent Representative Isaac Bryan and Republican Keith Cascio. Assm. Bryan’s campaign has raised $475,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, police, or real estate money. Cascio’s campaign has not recorded any fundraising receipts with the Secretary of State. 

     

    The Recommendation

    Assm. Isaac Bryan, a policy analyst and an organizer, lives in Jefferson Park. According to campaign materials, he is running for reelection to continue to use his lived experience and knowledge of coalition-building to bring intersectional change to his constituent communities. Assm. Bryan currently represents AD-54, a seat he won outright in a special primary election held in May 2021. In that race, he received over 50% of the vote against four Democratic opponents.

    Assm. Bryan’s priorities for AD-54 this year have included 24 bills about housing, child welfare, climate change, and criminal justice. Of these, two have been chaptered into law and one has died, and the remaining bills are in committee. Assm. Bryan currently sits on five committees, including Appropriations, Governmental Organization, Human Services, and Public Safety, and serves as the chair of the Elections Committee. He scores a CS of 100 out of 100 on Courage Score, our annual analysis of legislators’ progressive voting records. Based on our Courage Score analysis, Assm. Bryan has supported all progressive bills that made it to a vote this year. He received an Honorable Mention distinction from Courage Score this year for his commitment to progressive leadership. 

    Prior to his election to the State Assembly, Assm. Bryan developed his political acumen as a published academic, earning a master of public policy degree from UCLA. After graduating, he became founding director of the UCLA Black Policy Project, which aims to address racial inequity through policy analysis and advocacy. His work there allowed him to focus on research regarding the resources needed for successful reentry after incarceration, and larger issues with youth-justice policy. Assm. Bryan’s interest in issues of equity is personal. As one of nine adopted children in a family of 15, he encountered significant academic challenges and observed his siblings struggling with houselessness, addiction, and mental health. Assm. Bryan is a longtime supporter of policy that addresses the intersections of these complex social issues. He co-chaired the committee supporting Measure J, which amended the Los Angeles County charter to require that 10% of local revenue be reinvested in the community and in alternatives to incarcerations. The measure was passed by voters in November 2020, and brings meaningful local investment to the county. 

    Assm. Bryan has the endorsement of a strong majority of progressive groups, including California Teachers Association, California League of Conservation Voters, and ACCE Action. He has also received the endorsement of many progressive lawmakers, including Congresswoman Karen Bass, LA Supervisor Holly Mitchell, and LA City Councilmember Nithya Raman. Based on our analysis, Assm. Bryan’s track record and policy positions demonstrate that he will continue to be a progressive champion for the constituents of AD-55 and will govern effectively in the best interest of this diverse district.

    Isaac Bryan

    Reelect State Assemblymember Isaac Bryan to keep AD-55 on the right track for progress. 

     

    The Position

    State assemblymembers represent and advocate for the needs of their district constituents at the California State Capitol. They are responsible for creating, debating, and voting on legislation that addresses issues within their district.

    The California State Assembly has 80 districts. Each represents a population of at least 465,000 Californians. Representatives are elected to the Assembly for a two-year term. Every two years, all 80 seats are subject to election. Members elected before 2012 are restricted to three two-year terms (six years) in the Assembly. Those elected in or after 2012 are allowed to serve 12 years total across both the state Senate or the Assembly. This term, Democrats currently hold a two-thirds supermajority of 56 seats in the California State Assembly, while Republicans hold 19 seats. One seat is held by an Independent and four seats are currently vacant. 

     

    The District

    California’s 55th Assembly District includes parts of Los Angeles County. Prior to redistricting, Republicans typically held this district. Of the registered voters in this district, 8% are Republican and 65% are Democrat, and the district’s demographic breakdown is 25% Latino, 11% Asian, and 29% Black. After the 2021 redistricting process, the advantage that Democrats held during the 2020 general election cycle is unchanged. The most recent election results show that AD-55 voted for Joe Biden for president in 2020 by 71 points and Gavin Newsom for governor in 2018 by 73 points.

     

    The Race

    There are two candidates running for this seat, including Democrat Incumbent Representative Isaac Bryan and Republican Keith Cascio. Assm. Bryan’s campaign has raised $475,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, police, or real estate money. Cascio’s campaign has not recorded any fundraising receipts with the Secretary of State. 

     

    The Recommendation

    Assm. Isaac Bryan, a policy analyst and an organizer, lives in Jefferson Park. According to campaign materials, he is running for reelection to continue to use his lived experience and knowledge of coalition-building to bring intersectional change to his constituent communities. Assm. Bryan currently represents AD-54, a seat he won outright in a special primary election held in May 2021. In that race, he received over 50% of the vote against four Democratic opponents.

    Assm. Bryan’s priorities for AD-54 this year have included 24 bills about housing, child welfare, climate change, and criminal justice. Of these, two have been chaptered into law and one has died, and the remaining bills are in committee. Assm. Bryan currently sits on five committees, including Appropriations, Governmental Organization, Human Services, and Public Safety, and serves as the chair of the Elections Committee. He scores a CS of 100 out of 100 on Courage Score, our annual analysis of legislators’ progressive voting records. Based on our Courage Score analysis, Assm. Bryan has supported all progressive bills that made it to a vote this year. He received an Honorable Mention distinction from Courage Score this year for his commitment to progressive leadership. 

    Prior to his election to the State Assembly, Assm. Bryan developed his political acumen as a published academic, earning a master of public policy degree from UCLA. After graduating, he became founding director of the UCLA Black Policy Project, which aims to address racial inequity through policy analysis and advocacy. His work there allowed him to focus on research regarding the resources needed for successful reentry after incarceration, and larger issues with youth-justice policy. Assm. Bryan’s interest in issues of equity is personal. As one of nine adopted children in a family of 15, he encountered significant academic challenges and observed his siblings struggling with houselessness, addiction, and mental health. Assm. Bryan is a longtime supporter of policy that addresses the intersections of these complex social issues. He co-chaired the committee supporting Measure J, which amended the Los Angeles County charter to require that 10% of local revenue be reinvested in the community and in alternatives to incarcerations. The measure was passed by voters in November 2020, and brings meaningful local investment to the county. 

    Assm. Bryan has the endorsement of a strong majority of progressive groups, including California Teachers Association, California League of Conservation Voters, and ACCE Action. He has also received the endorsement of many progressive lawmakers, including Congresswoman Karen Bass, LA Supervisor Holly Mitchell, and LA City Councilmember Nithya Raman. Based on our analysis, Assm. Bryan’s track record and policy positions demonstrate that he will continue to be a progressive champion for the constituents of AD-55 and will govern effectively in the best interest of this diverse district.

Congress

Depending on where you live, you may have one of the below congressional districts on your ballot.

  • Adam Schiff

    Reelect Congressional Representative Adam Schiff to keep CD-30 on the right track for progress.

     

    Adam Schiff

    Reelect Congressional Representative Adam Schiff to keep CD-30 on the right track for progress.

     

    Adam Schiff

    Reelect Congressional Representative Adam Schiff to keep CD-30 on the right track for progress.

     

  • Ted Lieu

    Reelect Congressional Representative Ted Lieu to keep CA-36 on the right track for progress.

     

    Ted Lieu

    Reelect Congressional Representative Ted Lieu to keep CA-36 on the right track for progress.

     

    Ted Lieu

    Reelect Congressional Representative Ted Lieu to keep CA-36 on the right track for progress.

     

Voting has changed in Los Angeles County this year. The Voter’s Choice Act was enacted in the county to make voting more convenient. Changes include an expanded period of in-person early voting, every registered voter in the county will receive a vote-by-mail ballot, and every registered voter in the county is able to vote in-person at any Vote Center in their county. Also, in-person voters in Los Angeles County will have the opportunity to use the new Ballot Marking Device, a touchscreen with audio features, to mark their ballots. Have questions about the changes to voting in Los Angeles County? Find out how to vote in Los Angeles County.

No Recommendation

LA County Sheriff -- No rec

Based on our analysis, four of the challengers for this position have distinct visions for the district. We recommend that you choose the challenger who best aligns with your values in this race.

 

LA County Sheriff -- No rec

Based on our analysis, four of the challengers for this position have distinct visions for the district. We recommend that you choose the challenger who best aligns with your values in this race.

 

Depending on where you live, you may have the below county-districted races on your ballot.

  • Henry Stern

    Elect Henry Stern to push Los Angeles County in the right direction for progress. 

     

    The Position

    Each of the 58 counties in California is governed by a five-person board of supervisors. A board of supervisors has legislative and executive power to manage county services and resources, including courts, jails, public health, and public lands. They also have quasi-judicial powers, which gives them the right to hold hearings, conduct investigations, and make decisions in a manner similar to judicial courts. Laws passed by boards of supervisors are generally called ordinances. Because counties include both incorporated cities, which are administered by their own city councils, and unincorporated areas, which are directly administered by the county, ordinances may or may not apply in different areas of the county. Supervisors are typically ‎limited to 3 terms, or 12 years in office total.

     

    The District

    Los Angeles is California’s most populous county. Los Angeles County’s board of supervisors oversees the needs of 10 million people and manages an estimated budget of $36.2 billion annually. According to the County Charter, Los Angeles County is governed by a five-member board of supervisors, a county assessor, a district attorney, and a sheriff. District 3 includes the areas of Universal City, West Los Angeles, Santa Monica Mountains North Area, Westhills, Franklin Canyon, and Malibu Coastal Zone. 

     

    The Race

    There are six candidates running for this seat, including State Senator Henry Stern, State Senator Robert Hertzberg, West Hollywood City Councilmember Lindsey Horvath, Craig Brill, Jeffi Girgenti, and Roxanne Beckford Hoge. Sen. Stern’s campaign has raised $60,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, real estate, police, or corporate PAC interests. Sen. Hertzberg’s campaign has raised over $150,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, real estate, police, or corporate PAC interests. Horvath’s campaign has raised over $40,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, real estate, police, or corporate PAC interests. The campaigns for Brill, Girgenti, and Hoge have raised insignificant funds. 

     

    The Recommendation

    Henry Stern, an attorney and a state senator, was raised in Los Angeles. According to campaign materials, Sen. Stern is running for election to bring his state government experience to the real-time crises of homelessness and public safety facing Los Angeles County residents. In 2016, Sen. Stern won his first election for State Senate District 27 by 12 points over Republican Steve Fazio. 

    Sen. Stern started his career as a high school teacher and a juvenile-justice investigator, which inspired him to pursue his law degree at UC-Berkeley. He served as an attorney on Capitol Hill before pursuing civil rights and environmental law back in California. He is a longtime supporter of environmental protections, and has received annual recognition from Sierra Club and California Environmental Justice Alliance for his work in the legislature. 

    As a legislator, Sen. Stern’s priorities for SD-27 this year have included 46 bills about environmental protections, homelessness and housing, and education. Of these, one has been chaptered into law, ten have died, and the majority of the others remain in committee. He currently serves on four committees, and is chair of the Natural Resources and Water Committee, and chair of the Joint Legislative Committee on Emergency Management. He scores a Lifetime CS of 81 out of 100 on Courage Score, our annual analysis of legislators’ progressive voting records. Based on our Courage Score analysis, Sen. Stern has supported some progressive bills that made it to a vote. That said, he failed to vote to codify California’s carbon neutrality goal.

    Henry Stern is endorsed by many progressive groups in the district, including LA League of Conservation Voters, Sierra Club, and United Teachers of Los Angeles. He is also endorsed by many local elected officials, including State Senator Maria Elena Durazo and State Senator Connie Leyva. Based on our analysis, Stern’s track record and policy positions demonstrate that he will be a progressive champion for the constituents of Los Angeles County and will govern effectively in the best interest of this diverse district.

    Henry Stern

    Elect Henry Stern to push Los Angeles County in the right direction for progress. 

     

    The Position

    Each of the 58 counties in California is governed by a five-person board of supervisors. A board of supervisors has legislative and executive power to manage county services and resources, including courts, jails, public health, and public lands. They also have quasi-judicial powers, which gives them the right to hold hearings, conduct investigations, and make decisions in a manner similar to judicial courts. Laws passed by boards of supervisors are generally called ordinances. Because counties include both incorporated cities, which are administered by their own city councils, and unincorporated areas, which are directly administered by the county, ordinances may or may not apply in different areas of the county. Supervisors are typically ‎limited to 3 terms, or 12 years in office total.

     

    The District

    Los Angeles is California’s most populous county. Los Angeles County’s board of supervisors oversees the needs of 10 million people and manages an estimated budget of $36.2 billion annually. According to the County Charter, Los Angeles County is governed by a five-member board of supervisors, a county assessor, a district attorney, and a sheriff. District 3 includes the areas of Universal City, West Los Angeles, Santa Monica Mountains North Area, Westhills, Franklin Canyon, and Malibu Coastal Zone. 

     

    The Race

    There are six candidates running for this seat, including State Senator Henry Stern, State Senator Robert Hertzberg, West Hollywood City Councilmember Lindsey Horvath, Craig Brill, Jeffi Girgenti, and Roxanne Beckford Hoge. Sen. Stern’s campaign has raised $60,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, real estate, police, or corporate PAC interests. Sen. Hertzberg’s campaign has raised over $150,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, real estate, police, or corporate PAC interests. Horvath’s campaign has raised over $40,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, real estate, police, or corporate PAC interests. The campaigns for Brill, Girgenti, and Hoge have raised insignificant funds. 

     

    The Recommendation

    Henry Stern, an attorney and a state senator, was raised in Los Angeles. According to campaign materials, Sen. Stern is running for election to bring his state government experience to the real-time crises of homelessness and public safety facing Los Angeles County residents. In 2016, Sen. Stern won his first election for State Senate District 27 by 12 points over Republican Steve Fazio. 

    Sen. Stern started his career as a high school teacher and a juvenile-justice investigator, which inspired him to pursue his law degree at UC-Berkeley. He served as an attorney on Capitol Hill before pursuing civil rights and environmental law back in California. He is a longtime supporter of environmental protections, and has received annual recognition from Sierra Club and California Environmental Justice Alliance for his work in the legislature. 

    As a legislator, Sen. Stern’s priorities for SD-27 this year have included 46 bills about environmental protections, homelessness and housing, and education. Of these, one has been chaptered into law, ten have died, and the majority of the others remain in committee. He currently serves on four committees, and is chair of the Natural Resources and Water Committee, and chair of the Joint Legislative Committee on Emergency Management. He scores a Lifetime CS of 81 out of 100 on Courage Score, our annual analysis of legislators’ progressive voting records. Based on our Courage Score analysis, Sen. Stern has supported some progressive bills that made it to a vote. That said, he failed to vote to codify California’s carbon neutrality goal.

    Henry Stern is endorsed by many progressive groups in the district, including LA League of Conservation Voters, Sierra Club, and United Teachers of Los Angeles. He is also endorsed by many local elected officials, including State Senator Maria Elena Durazo and State Senator Connie Leyva. Based on our analysis, Stern’s track record and policy positions demonstrate that he will be a progressive champion for the constituents of Los Angeles County and will govern effectively in the best interest of this diverse district.

    Henry Stern

    Elect Henry Stern to push Los Angeles County in the right direction for progress. 

     

    The Position

    Each of the 58 counties in California is governed by a five-person board of supervisors. A board of supervisors has legislative and executive power to manage county services and resources, including courts, jails, public health, and public lands. They also have quasi-judicial powers, which gives them the right to hold hearings, conduct investigations, and make decisions in a manner similar to judicial courts. Laws passed by boards of supervisors are generally called ordinances. Because counties include both incorporated cities, which are administered by their own city councils, and unincorporated areas, which are directly administered by the county, ordinances may or may not apply in different areas of the county. Supervisors are typically ‎limited to 3 terms, or 12 years in office total.

     

    The District

    Los Angeles is California’s most populous county. Los Angeles County’s board of supervisors oversees the needs of 10 million people and manages an estimated budget of $36.2 billion annually. According to the County Charter, Los Angeles County is governed by a five-member board of supervisors, a county assessor, a district attorney, and a sheriff. District 3 includes the areas of Universal City, West Los Angeles, Santa Monica Mountains North Area, Westhills, Franklin Canyon, and Malibu Coastal Zone. 

     

    The Race

    There are six candidates running for this seat, including State Senator Henry Stern, State Senator Robert Hertzberg, West Hollywood City Councilmember Lindsey Horvath, Craig Brill, Jeffi Girgenti, and Roxanne Beckford Hoge. Sen. Stern’s campaign has raised $60,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, real estate, police, or corporate PAC interests. Sen. Hertzberg’s campaign has raised over $150,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, real estate, police, or corporate PAC interests. Horvath’s campaign has raised over $40,000 and is not funded by fossil fuel, real estate, police, or corporate PAC interests. The campaigns for Brill, Girgenti, and Hoge have raised insignificant funds. 

     

    The Recommendation

    Henry Stern, an attorney and a state senator, was raised in Los Angeles. According to campaign materials, Sen. Stern is running for election to bring his state government experience to the real-time crises of homelessness and public safety facing Los Angeles County residents. In 2016, Sen. Stern won his first election for State Senate District 27 by 12 points over Republican Steve Fazio. 

    Sen. Stern started his career as a high school teacher and a juvenile-justice investigator, which inspired him to pursue his law degree at UC-Berkeley. He served as an attorney on Capitol Hill before pursuing civil rights and environmental law back in California. He is a longtime supporter of environmental protections, and has received annual recognition from Sierra Club and California Environmental Justice Alliance for his work in the legislature. 

    As a legislator, Sen. Stern’s priorities for SD-27 this year have included 46 bills about environmental protections, homelessness and housing, and education. Of these, one has been chaptered into law, ten have died, and the majority of the others remain in committee. He currently serves on four committees, and is chair of the Natural Resources and Water Committee, and chair of the Joint Legislative Committee on Emergency Management. He scores a Lifetime CS of 81 out of 100 on Courage Score, our annual analysis of legislators’ progressive voting records. Based on our Courage Score analysis, Sen. Stern has supported some progressive bills that made it to a vote. That said, he failed to vote to codify California’s carbon neutrality goal.

    Henry Stern is endorsed by many progressive groups in the district, including LA League of Conservation Voters, Sierra Club, and United Teachers of Los Angeles. He is also endorsed by many local elected officials, including State Senator Maria Elena Durazo and State Senator Connie Leyva. Based on our analysis, Stern’s track record and policy positions demonstrate that he will be a progressive champion for the constituents of Los Angeles County and will govern effectively in the best interest of this diverse district.

  • Courage Score: https://couragescore.org